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89. Krah, F.-S., Büntgen, U., Schaefer, H., Müller J., Andrew, C., Boddy, L., Diez, J., Egli, S., Freckleton, R.P., Gange, A., Halvorsen, R., Heegaard, E., Heideroth, A., Heibl, C., Heilmann-Clausen, J., Høiland, K., Kar, R., Kauserud, H., Kirk, P., Kuyper, T., Krisai-Greilhuber, I., Norden, J., Papastefanou, P., Senn-Irlet, B., Bässler, C. European mushroom assemblages are darker in cold climates. Nature Communications (accepted 30.05.2019).


88. Chomicki, G., Schaefer, H. & Renner, S.S. 2019. Origin and domestication of Cucurbitaceae crops: Insights from phylogenies, genomics and archaeology. New Phytologist (accepted 17.05.2019).


87. Krah, F.-S. & Heibl C. 2019. rGUIDANCE - alignment confidence score calculation in R. The Journal of Open Source Software 4(36): 1350. DOI: 10.21105/joss.01350



86. Zhang, J., Payne, C.D., Pouvreau, B., Schaefer, H., Fisher, M.F., Taylor, N.L., Berkowitz, O., Whelan, J., Rosengren, K.J., Mylne, J.S. 2019. An ancient peptide family buried within Vicilin precursors. ACS Chemical Biology (online early 11.04.2019), DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.9b00167 


85. Schmid, L., Baessler, C., Schaefer, H., Krah, F.-S. 2019. A test of camera surveys to study fungus-animal interactions. Mycoscience (accepted 05.04.2019), DOI:10.1016/j.myc.2019.04.002


84. Crawford, D.J., Moura, M., Borges Silva, L., Mort, M.E., Kerbs, B., Schaefer, H., Kelly, J.K. 2019. The transition to selfing in Azorean Tolpis (Asteraceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 305: 305-317.


83. Bretzel, J., Endriß, T., Halbinger, F., Hanusch, M., Hege, R., Krömmüller, I., Reith, S., Rupprecht, V., Sach, M., Schwaiger, S., Stiglmaier, V., Thum, N., Weissmann, J.A. & Schaefer, H. 2018. Additions to the checklist of terrestrial biodiversity of Cabo Verde. Zoologia Caboveridiana 7: 28-38.


82. Endl, J., Achigan-Dako, E., Pandey, A.K., Montforte, A.J., Pico, B., Schaefer, H. 2018. Repeated domestication of melon (Cucumis melo) in Africa and Asia and a new close relative from India. American Journal of Botany 105: 1662-1671.


81. Thum, N. & Schaefer, H. 2018. Contrasting population trends of Whinchat (Saxicola rubetra) and Stonechat (S. rubicola) in fens south of lake Chiemsee (Bavaria, Germany). WhinCHAT 3: 46-50.


80. Borges, P.A.V., Cardoso, P., Kreft. H., Whittaker, R.J., Fattorini, S., Emerson, B.C., Gil, A., Gillespie, R.G., Matthews, T.J., Santos, A.M.C., Steinbauer, M.J., Thebaud, C., Ah-Peng, C., Amorim, A.R., Aranda, S.C., Arroz, A.M., ....Schaefer, H. ... & Gabriel, R. 2018. Global Island Monitoring Scheme (GIMS): a proposal for the long-term coordinated survey and monitoring of native island forest biota. Biodiversity and Conservation 27: 2567-2586.


79. Krah, F.-S., Bässler, C., Heibl, C., Soghigian, J., Schaefer, H. & Hibbett, D. 2018. Evolutionary dynamics of host specialization in wood-decay fungi. BMC Evolutionary Biology 18: 119. DOI: 10.1186/s12862-018-1229-7.


78. Price, J.P., Otto, R., Sequeira, M., Kueffer, C., Schaefer, H., Caujape-Castells, J., Fernandez-Palacios, J.M. 2018. Colonization and diversification shape species-area relationships in three Macaronesian archipelagos. Journal of Biogeography 45: 2027-2039.


77. Dias, E.F., Kilian, N., Silva, L., Schaefer, H., Carine, M., Rudall, P.J., Santos-Guerra, A. & Moura, M. 2018. Phylogeography of the Macaronesian lettuce species Lactuca watsoniana and L. palmensis (Asteraceae). Biochemical Genetics 56: 325-340.


76. Krah, F.-S., Seibold, S., Brandl, R., Baldrian, P., Müller, J. & Bässler, C. 2018. Quantifying the effects of environment and resources as drivers of the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi. Journal of Ecology 106: 1428-1442.


75. Weissmann, J.A. & Schaefer, H. 2018. The importance of generalist pollinator complexes for endangered island endemic plants. Arquipelago - Life and Marine Sciences 35: 23-40.


74. Dwivedi, M.D.D., Barfield, S., Pandey, A.K. & Schaefer, H. 2018. Phylogeny of Zehneria (Cucurbitaceae) with special focus on Asia. Taxon 67: 55-65. 


73. Semple, J., Lopez Laphitz, R.M. & Schaefer, H. 2017. Multivariate morphometric confirmation of Solidago chilensis (Asteraceae: Astereae) in the Azores. Phytoneuron 41: 1-7.


72. Weissmann, J. A., Picanço, A., Borges, P.A.V., Schaefer, H. 2017. Bees of the Azores: an annotated checklist (Apidae, Hymenoptera). Zookeys 642: 63-95.


71. Winter, M.B., Bässler, C., Bernhardt-Römermann, M., Krah, F.-S.Schaefer, H., Seibold, S., Müller, J. 2017. On the structural and species diversity effects of bark beetle disturbance in forests during initial and advanced early-seral stages at different scales. European Journal of Forestry Research 136: 357-373.


70. Lindner, K., Hu, Y., Pandey, A.K. & Schaefer, H. 2017. The Namib-Thar desert disjunction in Dactyliandra (Cucurbitaceae) is the result of a recent introduction to India. Systematic Botany 42:63-72.


69. Dias, E.F., Moura, M., Schaefer, H. & Silva, L. 2016. Geographical distance and barriers explain population genetic patterns in an endangered island perennial. AoB Plants 8: plw072. DOI: 10.1093/aobpla/plw072.


68. Bräuchler, C., Dwivedi, M.D. & Schaefer, H. 2016. Notes on the identity and typification of Zehneria thwaitesii (Schweinf.) C.Jeffrey and Zehneria tridactyla (Hook.f.) R. Fern. & A. Fern. (Cucurbitaceae). Phytotaxa 284: 143-146.


67. Steinbauer, M., Field, R., Fernandez-Palacios, J.-M., Irl, S.D.H., Otto, R., Schaefer, H. & Beierkuhnlein, C. 2016. Biogeographic ranges do not support niche theory in radiating Canary Island plant clades. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25: 792-804.


66. Weissmann, J.A. Schaefer, H. 2015. Honeybees (Apis mellifera) collect latex of Azores bellflowers (Azorina vidalii, Campanulaceae). Arquipelago - Life and Marine Sciences 32.


65. Thorn, S., Bässler, C., Bernhardt-Römermann, M., Cadotte, M., Heibl, C.Schaefer, H., Seibold, S. & Müller, J. 2015. Changes in the dominant assembly mechanism drive species loss caused by declining resources. Ecology Letters 19:163-170. doi: 10.1111/ele.12548


64. Williams, B.R.M, Schaefer, H., Menezes De Sequeira, M., Reyes-Betancort, J.A. Patiño, J. & Carine, M.A. 2015. Are there any widespread endemic flowering plant species in Macaronesia? Phylogeography of Ranunculus cortusifolius. American Journal of Botany102: 1-11. doi:10.3732/ajb.1500238


63. Mitchell, T.C., Dötterl, S. & Schaefer, H. 2015. Hawk-moth pollination and elaborate petals in Cucurbitaceae: The case of the Caribbean endemic Linnaeosicyos amara. Flora 216: 50-56.


62. Silva, L., Dias, E.F., Sardos, J., Azevedo, E.B., Schaefer, H. & Moura, M. 2015. Towards a more holistic research approach to plant conservation: the case of rare plants on oceanic islands. AoB Plants 7: plv066; doi:10.1093/aobpla/plv066 


61. Dias, E.F., Moura, M., Schaefer, H. & Silva, L. 2015, Interactions between temperature, light and chemical promoters trigger seed germination of the rare Azorean lettuce, Lactuca watsoniana (Asteraceae). Seed Sci. & Technol. 43: 1-12.


60. Schaefer, H. 2015. On the origin and systematic position of the Azorean goldenrod, Solidago azorica (Asteraceae). Phytotaxa 210: 47-59. 


59. Moura, M., Silva, L., Dias, E.F., Schaefer, H. & Carine, M.A. 2015. A revision of the genus Leontodon (Asteraceae) in the Azores based on morphological and molecular evidence. Phytotaxa 210: 24-46.


58. Moura, M., Carine, M.A., Malécot, V., Lourenço, P., Schaefer, H. & Silva, L. 2015. A taxonomic reassessment of Viburnum (Adoxaceae) in the Azores. Phytotaxa 210: 4-23.


57. Romeiras, M., Monteiro, F., Duarte, M.C., Schaefer, H. & Carine, M. 2015. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. AoB PLANTS plv051 doi:10.1093/aobpla/plv051


56. Mahatmanto, T., Mylne, J.S., Poth, A.G., Swedberg, J.E., Kaas, Q., Schaefer, H. and D.J. Craik. 2015. The Evolution of Momordica cyclic peptides. Molecular Biology and Evolution 32: 392-405.


55. Smýkal, P., Coyne, C., Ambrose, M., Maxted, N., Schaefer, H., Blair, M., Berger, J., Greene, S., Nelson, M., Besharat, N., Vymyslický, T., Toker, C., Saxena, R., Roorkiwal, M., Pandey, M., Hu, J., Li, Y., Wang, L., Guo, Y., Qiu, L., Redden, R. and R. Varshney. 2015. Legume crops phylogeny and genetic diversity for science and breeding. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 34:43-104. DOI:10.1080/07352689.2014.897904.


54. Didiano, T.J., Turley, N.E., Everwand, G., Schaefer, H., Crawley, M.J. and M.T.J. Johnson. 2014. Experimental test of plant defence evolution in four species using long-term rabbit exclosures. Journal of Ecology 102: 584-594.


53. Davis, C.C., Schaefer, H., Xi, Z., Baum, D.A., Donoghue, M.J., and L.J. Harmon. 2014. Long-term morphological stasis maintained by a plant-pollinator mutualism. PNAS 111: 5914-5919.


52. Rumsey, F.J., Schaefer, H. & Carine, M. 2014. Asplenium auritum Sw. sensu lato (Aspleniaceae:Pteridophyta) - an overlooked Neotropical fern native to the Azores. Fern Gaz. 19(7): 259-271.


51. Filipowicz, N., Schaefer, H. and S.S. Renner. 2014. Revisiting Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) 25 years after C. Heiser: species boundaries and application of names tested with plastid and nuclear DNA sequences. Systematic Botany 39: 205-215.


50. DeChaine, E.G., Forester, B.R., Schaefer, H. and C.C. Davis. 2013. Deep genetic divergence between disjunct refugia in the Arctic-Alpine King's Crown, Rhodiola integrifolia (Crassulaceae). PLOS ONE 8: e79451. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079451


49. Chauhan, V., Pandey, A.K., and H. Schaefer. 2013. Indigofera himachalensis (Fabaceae: Indigofereae), a new species from Himachal Pradesh, India. Phytotaxa 112: 43-49. DOI:


48. Wolkovich, E.M., Davies, T.J., Schaefer, H., Cleland, E.E., Cook, B.I., Travers, S.E., Willis, C.G. and C.C. Davis. 2013. Temperature-dependent shifts in phenology contribute to the success of exotic species with climate change. American Journal of Botany 100: 1407-1421. 


47. Turley, N.E., Odell, W.C., Schaefer, H., Everwand, G., Crawley, M.J., and M.T.J. Johnson. 2013. Contemporary evolution of plant growth rate following experimental removal of herbivores. American Naturalist 181(S1), S21-S34.


46. Schaefer, H., Hechenleitner, P., Santos-Guerra, A., Menezes de Sequeira, M., Pennington, R.T., Kenicer, G. and M.A. Carine. 2012. Systematics, biogeography, and character evolution of the legume tribe Fabeae with special focus on the middle-Atlantic island lineages. BMC Evolutionary Biology 12: 250, doi:10.1186/1471-2148-12-250.


45. Schaefer, H., Bartholomew, B. and D. Boufford. 2012. Indofevillea jiroi (Cucurbitaceae), a new floral oil producing species from Northeastern Myanmar. Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 323-332.


44. Schaefer, H. and M. Nee. 2012. Melothria domingensis (Cucurbitaceae), an endangered Caribbean endemic, is a CayaponiaPhytoKeys 18. doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.18.3914.


43. Xi, Z., Ruhfel, B.R., Schaefer, H., Amorim, A.M., Matthews, M., Endress, P., Sugumaran, M., Wurdack, K. J., Stevens, P.F. and C.C. Davis.  2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. PNAS 109: 17519-24.


42. Mylne, J.S., Chan, L.Y., Chanson, A.H., Daly, N.L., Schaefer, H., Bailey, T.L., Nguyencong, P., Cascales, L., and D.J. Craik. 2012. Cyclic peptides arising by evolutionary parallelism via asparaginyl-endopeptidase mediated biosynthesis. The Plant Cell 24: 2765-2778.


41. De Boer, H., Schaefer, H., Renner, S.S. and M. Thulin. 2012. Evolution and loss of petal fringes: a case study using a dated phylogeny of the snake gourds (Trichosanthes, Cucurbitaceae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 12: 108.


40. Carine, M.A., Jones, K., Moura, M., Belo Maciel, G., Rumsey, F.J., and H. Schaefer. 2012. Putting biogeography's cart back behind taxonomy's horse in the Azores: a response to Triantis et al. Journal of Biogeography 39: 1184-87.


39. Sebastian, P., Schaefer, H., Lira, R., Telford, I.R.H., and S.S. Renner. 2012. Radiation following long-distance dispersal: Disentangling the contributions of time, opportunity, and diaspore morphology in Sicyos (Cucurbitaceae). Journal of Biogeography 39: 1427-1438; doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02695.x).


38. Grass Phylogeny Working Group II (Aliscioni, S., Bell, H.L., Besnard, G., Christin, P.-A., Columbus, J.T., Duvall, M.R., Edwards, E.J., Giussani, L., Hasenstab-Lehman, K., Hilu, K.W., Hodkinson, T.R., Ingram, A.L., Kellogg, E.A., Mashayekhi, S., Morrone, O., Osborne, C.P., Salamin, N., Schaefer, H., Spriggs, E., Smith, S.A. and F. Zuloaga. 2012. New grass phylogeny resolves deep evolutionary relationships and discovers C4 origins. New Phytologist 193: 304–312.


37. Schaefer, H., Carine, M.A., and F.J. Rumsey. 2011. From European priority species to invasive weed: Marsilea azorica is a misidentified alien. Systematic Botany 36: 845-853.


36. Telford, I.R.H., Schaefer, H., Greuter, W., and S.S. Renner. 2011. A new Australian species of Luffa (Cucurbitaceae) and typification of two Australian Cucumis names, all based on specimens collected by Ferdinand Mueller in 1856. Phytokeys 5: 21-29, doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.5.1395.


35. Schaefer, H., Moura, M., Belo Maciel, G., Silva, L.F., Rumsey, F., and M.A. Carine. 2011. Taxonomic checklists and the Linnean shortfall in oceanic island biogeography: a case study in the Azores. Journal of Biogeography 38: 1345-1355.


34. Schaefer, H., Hardy, O.J., Silva, L.F., Barraclough, T.G. and V. Savolainen. 2011. Testing Darwin's naturalization hypothesis in the Azores. Ecology Letters 14: 389-396.


33. Simberloff, D. and 140 others including H. Schaefer, 2011. Non-natives: 141 scientists object. Nature 475: 36.


32. Schaefer, H. and S.S. Renner. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships in the order Cucurbitales and a new classification of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae). Taxon 60: 122-138.


31. Schaefer, H. and S.S. Renner. 2011. Cucurbitaceae. Pp. 112-174 in K. Kubitzki, ed., Families and Genera of Flowering Plants, Vol. 10. Springer Verlag, Berlin. 


30. Schaefer, H. and S.S. Renner. 2010. A gift from the New World? The West African crop Cucumeropsis mannii and the American Posadaea sphaerocarpa (Cucurbitaceae) are the same species. Systematic Botany 35: 534-540.


29. Sebastian, P., Schaefer, H., Telford, I.R.H., and S.S. Renner. 2010. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (C. melo) have numerous wild relatives in Asia and Australia, and the sister species of melon is from Australia. PNAS 107: 14269-14273.


28. Pautasso, M. and H. Schaefer. 2010. Peer review delay and selectivity in ecology journals. Scientometrics 84: 307-315.


27. Sebastian, P., Schaefer, H. and S.S. Renner. 2010. Darwin’s Galapagos Gourd: Providing new insights 175 years after his visit. Journal of Biogeography 37: 975-980.


26. Nee, M., Schaefer, H. and S.S. Renner. 2010. The relationship between Anisosperma and Fevillea (Cucurbitaceae), and a new species of Fevillea from Bolivia. Systematic Botany 34: 74-78.


25. Schaefer, H. and S.S. Renner. ­­2010. A three-genome phylogeny of Momordica (Cucurbitaceae) suggests seven returns from dioecy to monoecy and recent long-distance dispersal to Asia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54: 553-560.


24. Renner, S.S. and H. Schaefer. 2010. The evolution and loss of oil-offering flowers - new insights from dated phylogenies for angiosperms and bees. [invited symposium paper] Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365: 423-435.


23. Carine, M.A. and H. Schaefer. 2010. The Azorean diversity enigma: why are there so few Azorean endemic flowering plants and why are they so widespread? Journal of Biogeography 37: 77-89.


22. Schaefer, H. and P. Schoenfelder. 2009. Smilax azoricaS. canariensis (Smilacaceae) and the genus Smilax in Europe. Monografías del Instituto de Estudios Canarios, La Laguna 78: 297-307. 


21. Schaefer, H., Heibl, C., and S.S. Renner. 2009. Gourds afloat: a dated phylogeny reveals an Asian origin of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae) and numerous oversea dispersal events. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276: 843-851. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1447.


20. Schaefer, H. 2009. Momordica mossambica (Cucurbitaceae), a new gourd species from miombo woodland in northern Mozambique. Nordic Journal of Botany 27: 359-361.


19. Schaefer, H., Telford, I.R.H., and S.S. Renner. 2008. Austrobryonia (Cucurbitaceae), a new Australian endemic genus, is the closest living relative to the Eurasian and Mediterranean Bryonia and EcballiumSystematic Botany 33: 125-132.


18. Schaefer, H., Kocyan, A., and S.S. Renner. 2008. Linnaeosicyos (Cucurbitaceae), a new genus for the Caribbean sister group of the New World Sicyeae. Systematic Botany 33: 349-355.


17. Schaefer, H. and S.S. Renner. 2008. A phylogeny of the oil bee tribe Ctenoplectrini (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) based on mitochondrial and nuclear data: evidence for early Eocene divergence and repeated out-of-Africa dispersal. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47: 799-811.


16. Renner, S.S.*, Schaefer, H.* and A. Kocyan. 2007. Phylogenetics of Cucumis: Cucumber (C. sativus) belongs in an Asian/Australian clade far from melon (C. melo). BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 58. (*contributed equally).

recommended for Faculty 1000


15. Schaefer, H. 2007. Cucumis (Cucurbitaceae) must include CucumellaDicoelospermumMukiaMyrmecosicyos, and Oreosyce: a recircumscription based on nuclear and plastid DNA data. Blumea 52: 165-177.


14. Kocyan, A., Zhang, L.-B., Schaefer, H., and S.S. Renner. 2007. A multi-locus chloroplast phylogeny for the Cucurbitaceae and its implications for character evolution and classification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 553-577.


13. Van Leeuwen, J.F.N., Schaefer, H., Van der Knaap, W.O., Rittenour, T., Björck, S. and B. Ammann. 2005. Native or introduced? Fossil pollen and spores may say. An example from the Azores Islands. Neobiota 6: 27-34.


12. Schaefer, H. 2005. Flora of the Azores. A Fieldguide. Second enlarged edition. Margraf Publishers/Backhuys Publishers. Weikersheim. 346 p.


11. Schaefer, H. 2005. Endemic vascular plants of the Azores: an updated list. Hoppea 66: 275-283.


10. Schaefer, H. 2004. New records of Asplenium x rouyi in the Azores. Arquipélago - Life and Marine Sciences 20A: 31-32.


9. Rumsey, F., Russel, S., Schaefer, H. and H. Rasbach. 2004. Distribution, ecology and cytology of Asplenium azoricum Lovis, Rasbach and Reichstein (Aspleniaceae, Pteridophyta) and its hybrids. American Fern Journal 94: 113-125.


8. Henderson, S. and H. Schaefer. 2003. Synopsis of the genus Rostraria (Poaceae) in the Azores. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 125-131.


7. Pereira, J.C., Schaefer, H. and J. Paiva. 2002. New records of Veronica dabneyi Hochst. (Scrophulariaceae), an Azorean endemic plant not collected since 1938. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 139: 311-315.


6. Neves, V.C., Fraga, J.C., Schaefer, H., Vieira, V., Sousa A.B. and P.V. Borges. 2001. The occurence of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. in the Azores, with a brief review of its biology. Arquipélago - Life and Marine Sciences 18A: 17-24.


5. Schaefer, H. 2001a. The Grammitidaceae, Pteridophyta, of Macaronesia. Feddes Repertorium 112: 509-523.


4. Schaefer, H. 2001b. Distribution and status of the pteridophytes of Faial Island, Azores (Portugal). Fern Gazette 16: 213-237.


3. Schaefer, H. 2000. An inland population of Azorina vidalii (Watson) Feer, Campanulaceae, on Faial Island (Azores). Arquipélago - Life and Marine Sciences 17A: 93-95.


2. Schaefer, H. and H. Rasbach. 2000. Asplenium x rouyi Viane in the Azores (Aspleniaceae, Pteridophyta). Willdenowia 30: 219-227.


1. Schaefer, H. 1996. Orlaya grandiflora L. im Taubergebiet. Carolinea 54: 185-186.



Schaefer, H. 2003. Chorology and Diversity of the Azorean Flora. Dissertationes Botanicae 374. J. Cramer, Stuttgart, 130 p. + CD rom (580 p.)